July: Going Solar?

We’re keenly interested in generating our own power. With a reference through the Solar Energy Society of Alberta, we contacted a local company called  SkyFire Energy.

Satellite imagery of our property was used to determine the best way to install solar panels on our house. Daniel from Skyfire ran some analysis based on current electrical rates (this system involves selling all excess electricity to the utility company, so no batteries are involved.)  With solar cells on our roof, we would be able to generate 6750 kWh per year. The cost would be almost $18,000. It would pay for itself in 15 years, with a return on investment of about 2.5%. After 25 years, we would have made $13,000. (2.5% return on investment does not seem like a lot, but right now there are 10-year GICs going for just over 2%.)

We asked about the maximum potential of power generation for our property, and for about $25,000 (using our garage roof as well as the house),  we could generate more power than we consumed last year. The total estimated potential for us was 11,800 kWh (we consumed about 9900 kWh last year). This would reduce our overall carbon footprint by 40%.

The price tag is not yet economically viable for us. We’re hoping for federal or provincial support for the switch. And we’ll wait to see if prices drop further (there’s been a massive drop in price so far.) The Guardian: Solar panel costs predicted to fall 10% a year

More math: we consumed about 9900 kWh last year. With this year’s project, we’re hoping for about a 20% drop in consumption – to 7920. Panels on the roof would produce about 6750. That leaves us about 15% short. So perhaps the plan could be to wait for a government subsidy and perhaps a price drop, install panels on the roof, continue reducing our energy consumption (nail that 15%), and produce all our own power. Then add panels on the garage roof when we get an electric car.

In the meantime, we researched other options:

We could invest in a solar project. We made a small donation to The Alberta Solar Co-op.

 We’re also watching wind power – inventors are working on bladeless silent small turbines. Green Energy Jubilation: Silent Rooftop Turbine

There’s also microbial power to keep an eye on. MudWatt Microbial Fuel Cell Kit

There’s also interest in thermal heating. CBC news: Geothermal Pitched as Next Big Energy Source

We’re watching development of solar windows. We have the perfect candidate – a large, south facing garage window that we’d be happy to replace. PlanetSave: Solar Windows Ready for Production

However, none of these are in our price range yet and many are not yet commercially available.

In the meantime, we looked at solar toys. The best seem to be for off-grid living, more than for city life. We want more. Maureen has a solar calculator she bought in the 1980s that’s still going strong. The only maintenance it’s had in 30 years is the occasional cleaning of the solar strip across the top.

We did buy a new toy – a string of copper wire fairy lights for the garden. That, the solar calculator and a radiometer is the extent of solar at our house right now.

We want more! So much more is possible, like this totally solar Hutterite egg barn. CBC News: Net Zero Egg Barn. For now, we wait for technology, for government programs, and for further price drops. We’re poised to jump when the time is right. Our dream? In the next five years we’d love to have solar panels, a wind turbine on the north west corner of the garage roof, and a big solar garage window. Plus a battery in the garage, and excess power to sell back to the grid.

Next month we’ll focus on odds and bits, catching up on the repairs we still need to complete, news on small tweaks we’re trying, and a look at whether our consumption numbers are dropping yet.

June: Carbon in the Garden

June apple

Do we get credit for carbon sequestering in our garden? That was our big question for June. We have a large inner city yard with a small house, a big garage, and lots of extra city land under our care because we’re on a corner.

We have six trees, hedges and a whole lot of bushes. We grow a dozen kinds of fruit. We also grow some herbs and veges. We take good care of the soil, are organic gardeners, and prefer hand tools to power tools, including a push mower.

(For anyone wondering about what fruit grows in Calgary, we have apple, pear, strawberry, raspberry, rhubarb, gooseberry, kiwi, grape, black currant, Nanking cherry, Saskatoon berry, cherry. We pick more apples and pears than we can use each fall; the volume of the rest varies from small to none.)

The research:

A tree value study in California breaks down the significant value of trees, for carbon sequestering, help with heating and cooling, cleaning the air and beauty. California ‘Street Tree’ benefits valued at $1 Billion

But it’s hard to convert that data into anything relevant for one garden.

Our six trees calculated out to roughly 1.5 kg of carbon stored each year. We read that we can save about 2 lbs of carbon for every lb of fruits or vegetables we grow ourselves (yes, we noticed the change in units of measure to lbs. It came from a US website).

We came across some really interesting recommendations for garden carbon sequestering:

“For deep carbon sequestration, the basic requirements are as follows: Help plants maximize photosynthesis and tend the soil biology. Minimize plowing or tilling and digging, grow multi-species polycultures, don’t leave soil bare for extended periods, don’t use pesticides or synthetic fertilizer.”  Ecological Gardening: Backyard Carbon Sequestration: What Does Synthetic Fertilizer Have to Do with It?

“To store lots of carbon in your garden and keep it there, grow big trees and lots of biomass with woody stems, make sure these plants live a long time, and compost all your yard waste. Wood is the key, whether it’s in canopy trees, understory trees or shrubs.  …compost all your garden wastes on site or in your community to lock most of that carbon up in the soil for long-term storage.” The Carbon Footprint in Your Garden

Other recommendations include growing food, avoiding synthetic fertilizers, using less water/collecting rain water, and using planters and containers from upcycled materials. Oh, and let lawn clippings fall.

A garden with lots of trees is a wonderful place – we have dappled shade in the summer; light in the winter; snow on branches and places to hang bird feeders and hammocks; fresh organic food; a cooler house in the summer; an endless supply of compost; beauty and nature for the neighbourhood; a sanctuary for birds, bunnies and squirrels; and endless entertainment for passing dogs because the garden smells so interesting.

Do we get any credit?

That’s the hardest answer of anything we’ve researched. It’s brutally difficult to calculate. We’ve chosen to not claim credit, to know we’re doing well, and to look for ways we can do better.

Carbon in our garden plays out in several ways:

  1. carbon sequestered – in soil, plants, most especially in trees
  2. carbon saved because we grow some food for ourselves
  3. carbon used in inputs to the garden – plants in pots on trays, seeds in paper envelopes in a box for delivery, city water, soil additives.
  4. carbon used in what we dispose of, like plant pots and trays. We do compost everything but woody stuff (no chipper), and diseased material. Once the city sets up green bin collection that material will go to city composting.
  5. energy use in the garden – power tools, and propane for the flame weeder we use on our gravel driveway (which is permeable to water, a good choice, and we avoid chemical weed control, a good choice, but uses bad choice propane to save Maureen’s wrists from digging weeds out of gravel, which Maureen has decided is a good choice.)

What can we change:

  • we can be aware of inputs, and try to reduce them
  • we can lean even more to hand tools instead of power tools
  • we can work harder to use all the food we grow, and to share any extra
  • we can continue sharing extra plants with neighbours
  • we can work harder to remember to use rain water instead of city water

And we can enjoy our beautiful garden every day, knowing many people don’t have this opportunity to be stewards of a little bit of land.

 

May: Light Switches

May was all about lights. First we did our research. Tomsguide has more than we ever wanted to know about light bulbs (pricing is US).

http://www.tomsguide.com/us/light-bulb-guide,review-1986.html

LEDs are vastly better than the alternatives, except they are more expensive. But they last forever, so it doesn’t matter unless you switch them all at once, like we did. They are the most efficient, longest lasting, and have none of the concerns about mercury (CFL) or damage to art work (halogen).

We replaced our most-used incandescents with LEDs. We didn’t replace all bulbs – this gets complicated. LEDs are not recommended for enclosed light fixtures, we couldn’t find replacement for every bulb size, and LEDs are weird with dimmers. We took the odd bulb sizes to the hardware store, and a wonderfully knowledgeable woman helped us work through the options for each. We bought 13 bulbs for $98.54. We’ll switch out halogens as they burn out over the next year. They’re more efficient than incandescents, but not nearly as good as LEDs, and short lived.

We decided to test our new LEDs using the electric meter on our house. We turned off everything but the lights, and recorded the meter disk spinning.

We couldn’t get our base consumption to zero without unplugging every device in the house, so we also measured ghost power consumption, and subtracted that number from our other measurements. As usual, our accuracy is not very. Mark liked this website for figuring out the calculations:

https://staff.washington.edu/corey/power.html

Our ghost power consumption was 122.3 watts. Incandescents to be changed consumed 559.8 W. LEDs in the same fixtures consumed 103.1 W, an 80% drop in consumption.

Mark made a video of our electricity meter running with the new LEDs compared to the old incandescents. Maureen laughs every time she watches what he did with it.

Press here for the video.

Between the LED lights, the drying rack, and the new freezer, we’re hoping for about a 20% drop in our electricity use.

Next month? It’s time to talk gardening.

 

 

April: Gear and Habits

In April we researched more stuff. We feel nibbled to death by wee bits of information. It is vastly complex trying to sort out personal behavior and purchasing changes. We found two really good sources of information:

book: How Bad Are Bananas: The Carbon Footprint of Everything, by Mike Berners-Lee

website: http://michaelbluejay.com/electricity/refrigerators.html

We’ve redone our graph to add what our appliance use would be if we had the most efficient appliances. Blue is our estimated electricity use. Red is the most energy efficient currently available, best of class, according to Natural Resources Canada:

http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/pml-lmp/index.cfm?action=app.welcome-bienvenue

This website is our best find of the month. If you’re looking at new appliances, start here to find the best in class in power use. As always, we’ve found the numbers hard to pin down. We’ve decided the appropriate word for our accuracy is squishy.Electrical_BestinClass

Huge improvements are possible. However – and this is the big however – a new fridge takes carbon to create, so replacing a not-ancient still functioning fridge is actually not an improvement carbon-wise. It’s better to take care of appliances, keep them running well, and replace them when they’re truly dead. Unless it’s really old, like our really old freezer. That one is worth replacing.

We found a new one, finally. It was a pain, searching. Sears doesn’t list Kwh for their freezers in-store, on-line, or anyplace the saleswoman could look. We searched on-line and found most retailers didn’t. Trail had two options, with energuide information, but neither are high efficiency. We ended up scoring at the local London Drugs which happened to have the model we wanted in stock, on sale. The new one is best of class, and much more efficient than the old one. It’s also about 30% smaller.

Our washer tested at better than best of class, even though it’s old. It’s a front loader and highly efficient.

We use a portable air conditioner on the hot days, because Maureen needs filtered cool air when it’s hot and her lungs are unhappy. We’d wondered if central air would be a better choice – it’s not. And it turns out our current portable air conditioner is best in class. We try to reduce our use of it, by shutting blinds during the day and cooling the house at night. We have lots of trees to help cut heat gain, but on the really hot days the air conditioner is working hard. The furnace and air conditioning numbers really drive home the importance of good insulation and sealing leaks.

However, the furnace fan numbers are suspect – both our current estimate and best of class. Our furnace is high efficiency and newish (installed 2013). We’re not sure what’s going on there.

The dryer, fridge, stove and dishwasher will be replaced with best of class as they die.

The other stuff we’ll pick away at where we see opportunities. We’re shuffling power bars to reduce vampire power for older gear like the stereo. We’re becoming more careful about turning off lights and looking for other ways to make small changes.

Overall: between the new freezer, the drying rack (for a 30% reduction in dryer use), and switching to LED lights next month, we’re looking at about a 20% drop in our electricity use. Switching all appliances to best of class would be about 50%. We’ll aim for that with future purchases. And we’ll keep working on other gear and bad habits. Of course, the biggest impact will be when Alberta stops using coal to generate electricity ­- this is a huge source of carbon. So advocacy is important, too.

May will be all about lights as we switch to LEDs.

 

March : The Power We Use

In March we assessed electricity use in the house. This involved infinite detail which made Maureen’s head hurt (even before she wacked it and gave herself a mild concussion). Mark claimed to like this stuff, so he’s done the bulk of the assessment. Maureen suspects it made his head hurt, too.

Mark created a graph of the energy use of various devices. This is vaguely accurate, in a hand-wavy kind of way. It roughly fits what we’ve read elsewhere, that the biggest energy users are for heating and cooling. However, everything we’ve been able to directly test has come in at a different number than the estimates, so we know it’s not precise. About 6% of our power consumption is not accounted for.

ElectricalUseChart

Appliances marked with asterisks were measured using a Belkin Conserve Insight Model F7C005 ($50 on Amazon). This meter shows the current going through it (watts), but can also do a running average of consumption. The items we could not measure (wrong kind of plug, or difficult in some other way) are based on website estimates, some using the age of the appliance, with Mark guessing at yearly hours of use. Other includes the breadmaker, toaster, radios, iron, mower, xmas lights. Vampire power is power used by devices when they are plugged in but turned off.

Mark found these websites useful:

http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/for-my-home/save-energy/energy-calculator.aspx

http://michaelbluejay.com/electricity/refrigerators.html

The first thing we discovered is to watch our assumptions. Over and over, what we expected is not what we found.

We’ll focus first on the biggest power suckers:

We’ll be switching to LED lights. We have mostly incandescent, as we hate the fluorescents we’ve tried, and were advised by several electricians to wait for LEDs. Now’s the time.

The furnace itself may be high efficiency, but the fan uses a lot of power. The insulating and sealing tasks that came up last month will help there.

A clothes dryer is a huge consumer of energy, and the best way to reduce that is not having a dryer. Hang up clothes outside. However, that sucks in the winter and is not recommended for people with pollen allergies (Maureen), because then you’re wearing pollen and sleeping with it. We bought a drying rack for indoors as a compromise. We couldn’t have done it with four people in the house or with kid laundry, and it’s tight in our back entry, but it’s working well for three adults. We were hoping for a 20% reduction in dryer use. In fact, it’s coming in closer to a third.

We suspect most of our appliances are not worth replacing right away. We plan to replace as needed, with more efficient models. We will look carefully at the freezer. It’s the oldest, and may be worth replacing now.

April will be all about examining each line on the chart, finding the best changes to make. Research research research. We’re delaying actual purchases in hopes the Alberta Government comes up with some financial support for carbon reduction by homeowners, so we can do more.

February: Heating the House

We’re assuming anyone reading this blog is already convinced we need to act on climate change. For anyone who wants to know more, or wants to see Al Gore be positive (really!), check out this February 2016 TED talk. Al says we’re gonna make it. After watching this, we feel even more determined to dig deep and see what changes we can make.  http://www.ted.com/talks/al_gore_the_case_for_optimism_on_climate_change#t-147031

I (Maureen) plant for early, early blooms, because I particularly love that. My first flowers usually bloom at the end of March (one year in three), or the first week of April (two years out of three). This year my first flowers (a bunch of snowdrops) were in full bloom on February 26. As a gardener, I’m thrilled. As an inhabitant of planet Earth, I’m horrified at the damage we’re causing.

And so – to work.

In February we took a closer look at our natural gas consumption.

Step 1. Test for drafts

Requirements: 1 stick of incense, a small bowl to tap the ash into, a flashlight, a notebook and a pen. Price: $0.00.

Recommendations: Do not do it within days of dental surgery. The incense made Mark a little woozy. We turned off the furnace and turned on the fans that vent to outside to create negative air pressure in the house. A windy day might help. Body movement creates drafts, so wait a moment after moving to let air currents settle down. Bright light makes it harder to see the smoke, but in the darkest corners a flashlight is required.

Usefulness: Smoke from the incense stick was much more sensitive than our hands for finding drafts. Both were better than our guesses of where the drafts were coming from (um…that would be places we can see light shining through).

We had some ideas of what was drafty, so we knew where to start. We found some surprises (of course), including a cobweb collected by the incense stick (which thankfully did not catch fire). Our lovely fifteen-year-old double paned argon-filled reproduction wood sash windows have some problems with weather-stripping. We mapped out the drafty spots in awkward sketches in the notebook.

We found a few drafts around the front and back doors (not as much as we expected), and some of the power plugs are drafty, though not all of them. Years ago we put in those little insulation things you put in power plugs (Google says it’s an electrical outlet and light switch plate draft stopper foam gasket). We’ll need to check on some of them.

We’re also curious about the roof (the snow-melt pattern tells us there are warmer and cooler patches). Our back entry is cold and drafty in nasty weather (it’s a lean-to added after the house was built, long before we owned it). Mark suspects there are some air leaks in our dugout basement that houses the furnace (this is ladder and flashlight land where Maureen dares not venture because allergies).

Step 2: Furnace and Water Heater Efficiency

The furnace is rated at 92% efficiency. This is officially high-efficiency but not brilliant. Best available is 97%.

The water heater has an EF rating of .59 (no idea what that measures). The Energuide range for new water heaters ranges from .52 (worst), to .80 (best). Ours is sitting firmly on the low end. Now we know – when the water heater dies, have a chat with the electrician about energy efficiency before he installs a new tank.

Step 3: The Energy Assessment

Thursday, February 11 Kerry Webb from Calgary Thermal Vision spent the morning inspecting our house with a thermal camera. Price $315, including GST.  www.calgarythermalvision.com

The biggest hassle was moving furniture and pictures 18” away from exterior walls the evening before, to let the wall temperature adjust. It was a challenge to keep the house functional, while we shuffled furniture in crowded rooms, and piled all the extras in our offices.

It’s a good thing we didn’t rent a thermal camera on our own – we would have had no idea what we were looking at. Having a knowledgeable guy attached to the camera was very good. Kerry inspected the entire house, inside and out, including the dugout basement. There are lots of small things we can work on, but there was nothing horrific. He gave us tips on how to tackle the problem areas.

DC_0024

IR_0023

The photos are of the west side of our house, with a regular camera and a thermal camera. Kerry says all houses will show some heat loss along the base of the house. The important thing is the temperature difference. By insulating along the rim joist we can reduce the amount of heat loss. That’s probably the biggest task we’re going to tackle. Well, not we. Mark will. Maureen does not venture into the basement.

The back entry is cold because it has no foundation. More insulation won’t fix that. The roof insulation isn’t brilliant, but because of the oddities of how the house is constructed brilliant isn’t possible. This is not where we’re going to make great gains. The windows have some gaps in weather-stripping we need to repair. There’s a cold spot on my office ceiling that has no explanation – we’ll check the eavestroughing outside that window to see if there’s a leak. Mark is insulating around the dryer vent and the old gas pipe that’s been cut off and plugged but not insulated. We’ll put some insulation in the no-longer-used, incorrectly-installed cable outlet that’s drafty.

There was nothing here desperate for attention, and nothing worth putting a lot of money into. This was a huge surprise, but perhaps it shouldn’t have been, as we know our gas consumption is lower than average.

And so, in our quest to find the changes that will give us the biggest bang for our buck, March will be all about electricity. We’ll check our appliances and try to break down our electricity use, looking for the most efficient changes to make.

January: Where We Begin

January was all about assessing our current carbon footprint.

First, we looked up our fuel consumption. This was easy. Enmax, our electricity and natural gas provider, has an on-line service that totals and graphs consumption. One stop data.

For our two cars, we calculated our annual average mileage, and inputted model information. The on-line carbon footprint calculators worked out the rest. This will be based on official mileage for those vehicles, not our actual mileage, as we haven’t kept data on that. We will collect it this year.

We used two calculators to calculate our carbon footprint. The first, recommended by the Suzuki Foundation, focuses solely on fuel use.

https://treecanada.ca/en/programs/grow-clean-air/carbon-calculator/#tabs1-energy

Based on this, our carbon footprint is 20.34 metric tons of CO2. This is for 3 people in a 1200 sq ft house, no basement, detached unheated garage, in inner city Calgary.

However, we also wanted to include secondary carbon, from making and transporting the goods and services we use, so we looked at other websites, and chose

http://www.carbonfootprint.com/calculator.aspx

It’s easy to use, to reset, and to play with, and it breaks down the various categories clearly. The two calculators came up with the same carbon footprint for fuel consumption.

Our total carbon footprint including secondary consumption is 24.42 metric tons of CO2, for three people.

carbonimage

The average for Canada is 20 metric tons per person. Compared to that we’re doing really well. The average for the industrial world is 11 (we’re still doing well compared to that), worldwide average is 4 (we’re double that), and the worldwide target to combat climate change is 2. Ideally, we need to reach carbon zero.

Our first surprise – that our energy footprint as low as it is. Of course, that’s a relative thing. It’s still far, far too high.

The reasons it’s low compared to average? None of us drive to work or school (we’re in a walkable bikeable transitable neighbourhood). We live in a small house. We’ve made some changes over the years, like installing an efficient furnace, replacing old single-paned (multi-paned mullioned windows) with argon-filled double paned windows, and choosing efficient appliances as they need replacing.

Our second surprise ­– that our natural gas use is lower than average for our area, but our electricity use is higher. This one has us scratching our heads. Our guess is that this is a reflection of Maureen’s health issues. We run air filters through the year and a portable air conditioner on the hottest days to help with air quality. We’ll try to break this down further when we look at electricity use.

Note: Calgary’s electricity is generated in part by coal-fired plants, so our carbon footprint for electricity will be higher than for the same consumption in other provinces. The coal-fired plants are being phased out, but for now, it’s higher-carbon electricity. Our personal use is also higher than use in our area – that’s the piece we can work on.

The third surprise – we checked the price of carbon offsets. This is a purchase into someone else’s carbon sequestering project, to provide a carbon sink equal to our carbon use. For our current carbon footprint, this would cost $400ish, for the year. That’s it – that’s the yearly price for the three of us to get to zero carbon.

But that’s not the path we want to take. We want to reduce our carbon footprint. So to work.

In February we’ll focus on learning more about our natural gas consumption. We’ll test for drafts, and get an energy assessment. Hopefully we’ll learn what’s going on with our roof insulation, and discover why our poorly built back entry is so cold in deepest winter. We’ll also look at the efficiency of our furnace and water heater.

We were hoping to rent a thermal camera and play, but it turns out the rental from Home Depot is only available in the US. Alas. No geek out play time for us. We’ll have to be satisfied with a report.

Maureen and Mark

Here are some links we found useful for learning about reducing our carbon footprint:

http://www.davidsuzuki.org/what-you-can-do/reduce-your-carbon-footprint/

http://www.atcoenergysense.com/For-Homeowners/Tools-and-Calculators/

We used calculators that worked in different units of measure than our data. We googled the conversions, but if you want a chart, here’s one we bumped into:

http://www.atcoenergysense.com/For-Homeowners/Tools-and-Calculators/Energy-Conversion-Table