EcoDriving

Mark writes: In our posting about transportation in September, I promised to work on the efficiency of my driving.

I started by taking an online course sponsored by Natural Resources Canada. It’s designed to teach drivers some simple techniques to lower fuel consumption. You can sign up for it here.

The course has 3 main topics: Driving Behaviour (driver efficiency), Trip Planning (to drive a shorter distance by combining trips, etc), and Improving Your Vehicle’s Performance.

Here are a couple of interesting statistics, and a few of the pointers I got from the course.

Amazingly, there is one car for every two people in Canada. About 18 million light vehicles drive a whopping 300 billion Km every year. And the average vehicle puts about 4 tones of Co2 into the air each year. If we could drive less and more efficiently, that would make a big difference.

Here’s how we can improve:

Accelerate gently. Imagine you have an egg on the gas pedal. In the city, 50% of fuel is burned just getting up to speed from a stop, so this is the most important thing you can do. It should take five seconds to get to 20Km/hr from a complete stop.

Maintain a steady speed and anticipate traffic, so you don’t have to slow and accelerate so much. If you watch ahead, you can coast to slow down, which also saves fuel.

Avoid high speeds. Cars are typically most efficient from 50-80Km/hr. It can take 20% more fuel to drive 120Km/hr compared to 100Km/hr.

The course goes through much more detail on how to plan errands to drive shorter distances, and how to make your car run more efficiently (by reducing weight, getting a tune-up, and keeping the tires properly inflated).

Through practicing more awareness of my own driving habits and being more aware of other traffic, I became less hurried and much calmer as I drove. Somehow this awareness had made city driving at lot less… well, annoying!

And so far, I have improved my fuel consumption for city driving by about 20%.

 

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September: Transportation

Transportation is a little simpler than other topics we’ve tackled. Basically, bike, walking and transit are very good, while flying is very very bad.

Trains are good but we don’t have them here. We have freight trains, and a tourist run to Vancouver that costs more than flying, but nothing else.

Flying is one of the worst ways to spend our carbon-dollar. First, it takes a lot of fuel to fly a plane. Second, “the fuel is burned at an altitude where it has, as a best estimate, nearly twice the climate change impact that it would have had at ground level.” (Mike Berners-Lee, How Bad Are Bananas, p. 60, Greystone Books, 2011).

Any alternative to flying is better. Of course, sometimes that’s just not viable, especially in a huge country like Canada, or for international travel. We’ll be checking out carbon offsets the next time we fly, our personal carbon tax on flying, until there’s an actual carbon tax on flying.

We do walk, use transit and bike. We could/should/would do more. We’ll work on that.

We have two cars, which in itself is a big carbon hit, before considering any mileage. We’re not quite ready to shift back to one (we were a one-car family for many years). Our mileage has always been low, although that’s changing a little now. We head into the mountains once a week, and our parents live on the edges of Calgary, far from our central location, and far from each other. It looks like our mileage will be about 30% higher this year.

Our 2007 Honda Fit and 2010 Mazda 5 rate “Superior” on Greenercars.org, the top rating, and were both best in class. Greenercars.org search page. The Fit is rated at 7.3 Litres/100Km in the city, and 5.8 on the highway. Our measured mileage on the Fit was between 7.0 and 7.9 l/100Km, which is pretty good as we mostly drive in the city. The  Mazda is rated at 10.7 in the city and 8.4 on the highway. We’re not faring as well here; our actual mileage is between 11.5 and 14 l/100Km. The very best conventional cars are at the 7.0 l/100Km mark, so we are doing very well with the Honda. The hybrid Toyota Prius is rated at about 5.4 in the City. Natural Resources Canada’s guide.

Fuel efficiency can be boosted by up to 30% with simple maintenance and some driving changes. These include avoiding aggressive driving, as fast acceleration and deceleration both waste fuel. Watch highway speeding, as fuel consumption is up to 20% higher over 90 km/h, depending on the vehicle. Avoid any idling more than 30 seconds, except to clear the windshield in cold weather. Avoid driving in heavy traffic as much as possible. This both speeds up the trip, and doesn’t slow down other people, so there’s a double carbon gain. Make sure tires are inflated correctly, and vehicles well maintained. Plan trips for efficiency. For more details, there’s a good list at eartheasy.com.

We’ve decided to try to improve the efficiency of the Mazda. For a month or so, it’ll be used only for city driving, to make the test clean, and driven only by Mark, who will try to develop more efficient driving skills. We’ve read this can improve efficiency from 10-30%. Mark will take a Natural Resources Canada on-line course on efficient driving.

Our vehicles are 6 and 9 years old. We typically replace cars around 12 years, when they start to become less reliable. That’ll be when we take a close look at alternatives.

At the moment, a fully electric car sounds brilliant for city driving, but we wouldn’t take it into the mountains. Calgary to Jasper is 412 km, and we drive it in one day. We can’t get there on a single charge. Someday there might be enough charging stations. Today is not that day. At the moment there’s only one gas station between Lake Louise and Jasper, a 232 km run. We won’t drive into the Canadian Rockies and risk running out of fuel. That’s just not safe.

We could have an electric car for city driving and a gasoline car for road trips, but that seems foolish. A hybrid might make more sense for us. We’ll keep watching the rapid and exciting developments for electric cars, improved batteries, solar roofs on electric cars, and dropping prices, and make the move when it’s time to replace a vehicle. Here’s a great article on the shifting cost of clean cars. NPR: It may not cost you more to drive home in a lower emission car.

Perhaps the most important thing we can do is to advocate for a healthy carbon future, including voting for those who support mass transit.

In October we’ll be digging in to food.

 

April: Gear and Habits

In April we researched more stuff. We feel nibbled to death by wee bits of information. It is vastly complex trying to sort out personal behavior and purchasing changes. We found two really good sources of information:

book: How Bad Are Bananas: The Carbon Footprint of Everything, by Mike Berners-Lee

website: http://michaelbluejay.com/electricity/refrigerators.html

We’ve redone our graph to add what our appliance use would be if we had the most efficient appliances. Blue is our estimated electricity use. Red is the most energy efficient currently available, best of class, according to Natural Resources Canada:

http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/pml-lmp/index.cfm?action=app.welcome-bienvenue

This website is our best find of the month. If you’re looking at new appliances, start here to find the best in class in power use. As always, we’ve found the numbers hard to pin down. We’ve decided the appropriate word for our accuracy is squishy.Electrical_BestinClass

Huge improvements are possible. However – and this is the big however – a new fridge takes carbon to create, so replacing a not-ancient still functioning fridge is actually not an improvement carbon-wise. It’s better to take care of appliances, keep them running well, and replace them when they’re truly dead. Unless it’s really old, like our really old freezer. That one is worth replacing.

We found a new one, finally. It was a pain, searching. Sears doesn’t list Kwh for their freezers in-store, on-line, or anyplace the saleswoman could look. We searched on-line and found most retailers didn’t. Trail had two options, with energuide information, but neither are high efficiency. We ended up scoring at the local London Drugs which happened to have the model we wanted in stock, on sale. The new one is best of class, and much more efficient than the old one. It’s also about 30% smaller.

Our washer tested at better than best of class, even though it’s old. It’s a front loader and highly efficient.

We use a portable air conditioner on the hot days, because Maureen needs filtered cool air when it’s hot and her lungs are unhappy. We’d wondered if central air would be a better choice – it’s not. And it turns out our current portable air conditioner is best in class. We try to reduce our use of it, by shutting blinds during the day and cooling the house at night. We have lots of trees to help cut heat gain, but on the really hot days the air conditioner is working hard. The furnace and air conditioning numbers really drive home the importance of good insulation and sealing leaks.

However, the furnace fan numbers are suspect – both our current estimate and best of class. Our furnace is high efficiency and newish (installed 2013). We’re not sure what’s going on there.

The dryer, fridge, stove and dishwasher will be replaced with best of class as they die.

The other stuff we’ll pick away at where we see opportunities. We’re shuffling power bars to reduce vampire power for older gear like the stereo. We’re becoming more careful about turning off lights and looking for other ways to make small changes.

Overall: between the new freezer, the drying rack (for a 30% reduction in dryer use), and switching to LED lights next month, we’re looking at about a 20% drop in our electricity use. Switching all appliances to best of class would be about 50%. We’ll aim for that with future purchases. And we’ll keep working on other gear and bad habits. Of course, the biggest impact will be when Alberta stops using coal to generate electricity ­- this is a huge source of carbon. So advocacy is important, too.

May will be all about lights as we switch to LEDs.